Circa il 50% della ricchezza dell’Italia è costituita da immobili: questo dato apparirebbe ancora maggiore qualora si considerassero gli investimenti complessivi nel nostro Paese, all’interno dei quali dovremmo ricomprendere anche le infrastrutture e, in particolare, aeroporti, stazioni ferroviarie, porti ecc.
Il moderno edificio per la residenza, ovvero il prototipo di palazzo condominiale che caratterizza in maniera massiva le città europee, nasce nell’Ottocento ed è il risultato dei processi di inurbamento provocati dal sorgere della prima industria. A partire dalla seconda metà dell’Ottocento, il modello dell’edificio residenziale destinato alla classe emergente medio-borghese si afferma in tutte le principali città europee. Alcuni tra i grandi architetti e ingegneri artefici della rottura con l’eclettismo e il classicismo ottocentesco sono stati i protagonisti della costruzione e dell’affermazione dell’edificio residenziale, così come ancor oggi viene concepito.
L’uomo nella sua evoluzione ha trasformato l’antico riparo dall’inclemenza dei fenomeni naturali in abitazioni sempre più attrezzate ed in grado non solo di proteggere dagli agenti atmosferici esterni, ma di offrire una costante condizione di benessere e comfort climatico.
For over 50 years, Italy has experienced an intense building activity which contributed to the industrialization and development of the country; the construction sector and the world of technical professions have grown relentlessly for many years. Recently some phenomena have challenged this model: the characteristics of a densely built territory; the average age of buildings, mostly built after the world war and so far from quality traits and performance demands today; the emerging need for upgrade and maintenance features highlighting the main Italian metropolitan areas and leading to a total rethinking of the maintenance activities, no longer the sum of single interventions of recovery and requiring specific strategies and programming capacity; the birth of financial instruments geared to real estate that led formalized behaviors, rigorous procedures and qualified services, helping to overcome the phase characterized by an evident lack of homogeneity and sometimes absence of rules. These phenomena orientate the development of the country towards maintenance, restoration, urban infrastructure and services, but above all the ability to respond to new market players, not just represented by construction companies, but by the financial community, able to commit its own capital in operations at international scale.
This requires a new and different effort, than in the past, to qualify young graduates able to operate on existing assets, leading education to the hybridization of expertise and multidisciplinarity; architects and engineers of the future must have competencies not only technical but organizational, managerial, technical and financial. This contribution wants to illustrate the Italian experience and choices and trends characterizing new contents of university education for engineers and architects, according to the experience of Politecnico di Milano.
Integration partnership and innovations in constructions science and education | Moscow (Russia)
Innovation of product, process and markets are the three categories to assess the improvement of a sector. This document is aimed to provide a review of papers about innovation in housing market and analyses solutions adopted by the international market in terms of definition of attributes of housing products. Enlightening aspects linked to quality attributes of housing products and it has been tried to read a common scheme in any study analysed to provide solutions to set innovation hints to enhance market innovation in the sector. The idea of choice, user and buyer categories definition, assessment and rating system is the backbone of the paper, as the parallelism between marketing of industrial goods and services and built environment objects. Quality of the neighbourhood and the idea of an ex-post assessment is the theme behind the last case presented, based on a research made by ABC Department of Politecnico di Milano in a neighbourhood in Milano, aimed to assess its quality.